Summary of the most important accounting principles used
A) BASIS OF PREPARATION
The consolidated financial statements of Belships ASA (the “Parent Company”), and all its subsidiaries (the “Group”), have been prepared in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards as adopted by the European Union (IFRS). The Group accounts have been prepared on a historical cost basis, except for derivatives and shares held for trading, which are measured at fair value.
The Group accounts are presented with uniform accounting principles for identical transactions and events under otherwise identical conditions.
The annual accounts are presented on a going concern basis in accordance with § 3 – 3 of the Norwegian Accounting Act.
Belships has three long-term time-charter agreements with Canpotex, which are favourable in the current market. The cash flow is positive in all entities. Based on this, the Board considers that the conditions for a going concern are in place.
B) CONSOLIDATION PRINCIPLES
The consolidated financial statements comprise the financial statements of Belships ASA and its subsidiaries as at 31 December 2017. Control is achieved when the Group is exposed, or has rights, to variable returns from its involvement with the investee and has the ability to affect those returns through its power over the investee.
Consolidation of a subsidiary begins when the Group obtains control over the subsidiary and ceases when the Group loses control of the subsidiary.
Unrealised gains from transactions with affiliated companies are eliminated with the Group’s share of the company/enterprise. Unrealised losses are likewise eliminated, but only to the degree that there is no indication of loss of value on the asset being sold internally.
C) CURRENCY TRANSACTIONS
Functional currency and reporting currency
Accounting transactions undertaken by respective Group companies use the currency ordinarily used by the financial environment in which they operate (functional currency). The Group accounts are presented in USD.
The accounts for the units in the Group which have a functional currency different from the Group’s reporting currency, convert their accounts into the reporting currency according to the following guidelines:
• Assets and debts are converted according to conversion rates on the balance sheet date
• Income and costs are converted according to monthly average conversion rates
Transactions in foreign currency
Transactions in foreign currency are converted to the functional currency at the rate at time of the transaction. Monetary items in foreign currency are converted into functional currency using the rate at the balance sheet date. Non-monetary items which are measured at historical cost expressed in foreign currency, are converted into functional currency using the currency rate at the time of the transaction.
Non-monetary items, which are measured at fair value expressed in foreign currency, are converted at the currency rate on the date of measurement. Currency rate changes are recognised continuously against profit and loss during the accounting period. Currency rates at year end was USD 8.2050 (2016: USD 8.6200) and SGD 6.1410 (2016: SGD 5.9645).
D) ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE
Trade receivables are recognised at face value less any impairment. Provision for impairment is made when there is objective evidence of impairment that affects the estimated future cash-flow.
E) TANGIBLE FIXED ASSETS
Tangible fixed assets are measured at acquisition cost, net of accumulated depreciation and impairments losses. When assets are sold or divested, the carrying amount is deducted and any gains or losses are recognised in the profit and loss account. Acquisition cost for tangible fixed assets is the purchase price, including taxes and charges and expenses directly related to preparing the asset for use. Expenses incurred after the asset has been put to use, are recognised in the profit and loss account, whereas other expenses which are expected to create future financial gains are capitalised. An estimated docking element is recognised as a separate component of the ship for depreciation purposes on the first occasion a ship is booked in the accounts. The amount corresponds to the estimated docking costs for the period. The docking component is depreciated on a straight-line basis the over the period to the next planned drydocking. Residual value has been taken into account, and this is estimated based on steel value of the ship at the balance sheet date less estimated cost to demolish the ship. Book value is compared to market value and value in use to assess the need for any further impairment compared to the ordinary depreciation plan. The depreciation period and method are assessed annually and are based on the management’s estimates of the ships’ future useful life. The same applies to residual value.
In accordance with IFRS, the ships have been separated into components for depreciation purposes. The ships are depreciated as one unit, as the value of any part of the ship with a useful lifetime other than 25 years is considered to be insignificant.
Newbuilding contracts are recognised as a fixed asset based on instalments paid to the yard. Building supervision costs and project costs related to the newbuilding contracts are capitalised.
See section P) regarding treatment of borrowing costs.
The determination of whether an arrangement is, or contains a lease is based on the substance of the arrangement at inception date. Leases are classified as financial leases if the terms of the lease agreement transfers substantially all the risks and rewards incidental to ownership of an asset. All other leases are classified as operating lease.
Assets financed under financial leases are capitalized at inception of the lease at the fair value of the leased vessel or, if lower, at the present value of the minimum lease payments. The corresponding lease obligation is recognized as a liability in the balance sheet. Lease payments are split between interest cost and reduction of the lease liability. Interest cost is recognized in the income statement.
Financial leased assets are depreciated over the shorter of the estimated useful life of the asset and the lease term. For operating leases, the payments (time charter hire or bareboat hire) are recognized as an expense on a straight line basis over the term for the lease.
G) FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS
Financial instruments under the scope of IAS 39 are classified in the following categories:
• financial assets at market value through profit or loss (held for trading purposes)
• available for sale
• loans and receivables
• held to maturity investments
• other obligations
Financial assets with fixed or determinable cash flow which are not listed in an active market are classified as loans and receivables. Investments held to maturity, loans and receivables and other liabilities are measured at amortised cost.
A provision is recognised when the company has a liability (legal or constructive) as a result of a previous event and where it is probable (more probable than not) that there will be a financial settlement as a result of this liability and that the size of the sum can be reliably determined. If the effect is material, the provision is estimated by discounting the expected future cash flow with a discount rate before tax which reflects the market’s evaluation of the time value of money and, if relevant, risks specifically connected to the liability.
A provision is recognised for any unavoidable net loss arising from the contract, the unavoidable cost under a contract reflect the least net cost of exiting from the contract, i.e. the lower of the cost of fulfilling the contract; and any compensation of penalties arising from failure to fulfill the contract.
(i) Debt and equity
Financial instruments are classified as debt or equity according to the underlying substance of the contractual agreement. Interest, dividend, gains and losses related to a financial instrument classified as debt, is presented as income or expense.
(ii) Treasury shares
Own equity instruments that are reacquired (treasury shares) are recognised at cost and deducted from equity. No gain or loss is recognised in profit or loss on the purchase, sale, issue or cancellation of the Group’s own equity instruments. Any difference between the carrying amount and the consideration, if reissued, is recognised in share premium. Share options exercised during the reporting period are fulfilled with treasury shares.
(iii) Costs related to equity transactions
Transaction costs directly related to equity transactions are charged directly against the equity after tax deductions.
J) REVENUE RECOGNITION
Revenue is recognised when it is likely that the economic benefits which will flow to the Group and the revenue can be reliably measured, regardless of when the payment is being made. Revenues from time charter accounted for as operational leases are recognized on a straight line basis over the rental periods of such charters, as service is performed.
K) EMPLOYEE BENEFITS
Defined contribution pension scheme
All employees are member of the company’s defined contribution scheme. The premium is charged as incurred by operations. Social security tax expense is recognized based on the pension plan payments.
Defined benefit pension scheme
Actuarial gains and losses arising from changes in actuarial assumptions are recognised as other comprehensive income in the period in which they arise. The cost of providing benefits under the defined benefit plan is determined using the projected unit credit method.
The company has unfunded pension liabilities. These relate to early retirement and pension to persons, that have not been included in the service pension scheme. Pension obligations are estimated by an independent actuary.
L) Investment in associates
An associate is an entity over which the Group has significant influence, but not control, and which is not a subsidiary. Significant influence is defined as the right to participate in the financial and operating policy decisions of the investee, but is not control over those policies.
Interests in associates are accounted for using the equity method. Under this method, the investment is carried in the Consolidated statement of financial position at cost plus post-acquisition changes in the Group’s share of net assets of the associate, less any provisions for impairment. The Consolidated Income Statement reflects the Group’s share of net income of the associate. Where there has been a change recognised directly in the equity of the associate, the Group recognises its share in the Consolidated Statement of Comprehensive Income.
M) CONTINGENT ASSETS AND OBLIGATIONS
Contingent liabilities are not recognised in the annual accounts. Significant contingent liabilities are disclosed, with the exception of contingent liabilities in which the possibility of loss is considered remote.
Contingent assets are not recognised in the annual accounts but are disclosed if there is a certain probability that a significant benefit will be added to the Group.
N) TAXES ON INCOME
Tax expenses consist of tax payable and changes in deferred tax. Deferred tax/tax assets are calculated on all differences between accounting values and tax values of assets and liabilities, with the exception of temporary differences related to investments in subsidiaries, affiliated companies or jointly controlled enterprises when the Group controls when the temporary differences will be reversed, and that is not expected to occur in the foreseeable future.
Deferred tax assets are recognised when it is likely that the company will have sufficient profit for tax purposes in subsequent periods that will enable the company to utilise the tax asset. Similarly, the company will reduce the deferred tax asset to the extent the company no longer regards it as being likely that it can utilize the deferred tax asset.
Deferred tax liabilities and deferred tax assets are measured on the basis of prevailing tax rates for the companies in the Group where temporary differences have occurred, based on tax rates that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the end of the reporting period.
Deferred tax liabilities and deferred tax assets are entered at nominal value calculated with the tax rate in the actual tax regime and are classified as long-term liability or intangible fixed asset in the balance sheet. Tax payable and deferred tax are entered directly against equity to the extent the tax items relate to equity transactions.
In addition to companies subject to ordinary taxation in Norway, Singapore and China, the Group consists of one company within the shipping taxation scheme in Singapore. The deferred tax positions associated with the different tax regimes cannot be offset. A corresponding situation also applies to tax positions between jointly controlled operations and the rest of the Group. These cannot be offset.
O) IMPAIRMENT OF ASSETS
At the end of each quarter, every ship is assessed for impairment indicators. The same applies when events or changes occur that may entail that the asset’s carrying amount may not be recovered. In assessing the need for impairments, assets are grouped at the lowest level at which there is identifiable and predominantly independent cash inflows, which means per ship. Impairment is calculated as the difference between the asset’s carrying amount and the value considered as recoverable. The recoverable amount is the higher of the asset’s fair value less cost to sell and its value in use to the Group. Value in use is calculated by discounting anticipated future cash flows from the asset. When it is assumed that the asset’s value is lower than its carrying amount, an impairment loss is recognised.
Impairment loss recognised in earlier periods is reversed only in case of changes to the estimates used to determine the recoverable amount. However, the reversal amount may only be so high that book value after reversal at most corresponds to the value at which the asset would have been registered if it had not been impaired earlier. Such reversals are recorded in the profit and loss.
Financial assets classified as being available for sale are written down when there are objective indications that the asset has declined in value. An accumulated loss (the difference between acquisition cost and current market value, with deduction of impairments previously included in the result and any amortisation amounts) is included in the profit and loss account. If the market value of a debt instrument classified as available for sale increases in a subsequent period, and the increase can objectively be linked to an event that took place after the impairment was included in the profit and loss, the impairment loss will be reversed over the profit and loss account.
Impairment loss for an investment in an equity instrument classified as held for sale, will not be reversed over the income statement.
P) BORROWING COSTS
Borrowing costs directly attributable to the acquisition or construction of an asset that necessarily takes a substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use are capitalised as part of the cost of the asset. All other borrowing costs are expensed in the period in which they occur. Borrowing costs consist of interest and other costs that an entity incurs in connection with the borrowing of funds.
Q) EVENTS AFTER THE BALANCE SHEET DATE
New information after the balance sheet date regarding the company’s financial position as of the balance sheet date is taken into consideration in the annual accounts. Events after the balance sheet date that do not affect the company’s financial position as of the balance sheet date, but which will have an impact on the company’s financial position in the future are disclosed if significant.
R) SHARE-BASED PAYMENTS
Employees and management in Belships ASA received options to purchase company shares. Market value of the awarded options is measured at time of the award and charged to expense over the vesting period as a payroll cost with corresponding increase in other paid-in equity. The market value of the options granted is estimated using the Black and Scholes option pricing model.
S) CASH AND CASH EQUIVALENTS
Cash and cash equivalents include cash in hand, bank deposits and other short-term and in particular liquid investments to be redeemed within 3 months. Cash and cash equivalents are recognised at nominal values in the balance sheet.
T) RESTRICTED DEPOSITS
Restricted cash include all deposits in separate accounts, which will be used to cover accrued taxes withheld for employees and deposits provided as security for certain guarantees.
U) REPORTING BY SEGMENTS
Operating segments are components of a business that are evaluated regularly by the chief operating decision maker for the purpose of assessing performance and allocating resources. The Groups chief operating decision maker is the CEO. The operating segments consist in dry cargo and technical operations, which is how the information is presented to the Management and the Board. Transactions between the business units are based on market conditions. Segment turnover, segment costs and segment results include transactions between segments.
V) RELATED PARTY TRANSACTIONS
Transactions with related parties are carried out at market terms. See note 10 for further information.
W) CASH FLOW STATEMENT
The cash flow statement has been prepared using the indirect method. Liquid assets include cash, bank deposits (restricted and unrestricted) and other short-term investments which can be converted to cash within 3 months. For restricted deposits, see note 15.
X) CLASSIFICATION BALANCE SHEET
|The Group presents assets and liabilities in statement of financial position based on current/non-current classification.|
|An asset is considered current when it is:|
|•||expected to be realised or intended to sold or consumed in normal operating cycle|
|•||held primarily for the purpose of trading|
|•||expected to be realised within twelve months after the reporting period|
|•||cash or cash equivalent unless restricted from being exchanged or used to settle a liability for at least twelve months after the reporting period|
|All other assets are classified as non-current.|
|A liability is considered current when it is:|
|•||expected to be settled in normal operating cycle|
|•||held primarily for the purpose of trading|
|•||due to be settled within twelve months after the reporting period|
|•||there is no unconditional right to defer the settlement of the liability for at least twelve months after the reporting period|
|The Group classifies all other liabilities as non-current. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are classified as non-current assets and liabilities.|
Y) Changes in accounting polices
Amendments to IAS 7 Statement of Cash Flows
Disclosure Initiative The amendments require entities to provide disclosure of changes in their liabilities arising from financing activities, including both changes arising from cash flows and non-cash changes (such as foreign exchange gains or losses). The Group has provided the information in note 13.
Except for the above change, the same accounting policies and methods of compultation are followed in this financial statement as compared with the annual financial statement for 2016.
Standards issued but not yet effective are as follows:
IFRS 9 Financial Instruments
The standard (as revised in 2014) will supersede IAS 39 upon its effective date for annual periods beginning on or after 1 January 2018. The number of categories of financial assets have been reduced to financial assets measured at amortized cost and financial assets measured at fair value. However, the standard introduces a “fair value through other comprehensive income” measurement category for certain simple debt instruments. IFRS 9 also presents a new impairment model which is based on expected credit losses, rather than on incurred credit losses. Implementation of the new standard is not expected to have any significant impact.
IFRS 15 Revenue from Contracts with Customers
IFRS 15, effective from 1 January 2018, covers the recognition of revenue in the financial statements and related disclosure. IFRS 15 will replace IAS 18 Revenue. The main part of the group’s revenue is freight income on ships. All ships are chartered out on time charter. The group has assessed that IFRS 15 will not have impact on revenue recognition, however additional break downs of revenue will be provided in note disclosure.
IFRS 16 Leases
IFRS 16, effective from 1 January 2019, covers the recognition of leases and related disclosure in the financial statement, and will replace IAS 17 Leases. The group is in the early phase of evaluating the impact of IFRS 16. The currently material lease contracts are related to ships and properties. Currently the company has 2 ships on financial lease in, and 1 ship on operational lease in. At this stage, the group does not intend to adopt the standard before its effective date.