Summary of the most important accounting principles used
A) BASIS OF PREPARATION
The consolidated financial statements of Belships ASA (the “Parent Company”), and all its subsidiaries (the “Group”), have been prepared in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) as adopted by the EU. The Group accounts have been prepared on a historical cost basis, except for derivatives and shares, which are measured at fair value.
The Group accounts are presented with uniform accounting principles for identical transactions and events under otherwise identical conditions.
B) CONSOLIDATION PRINCIPLES
The consolidated financial statements comprise the financial statements of Belships ASA and its subsidiaries as at 31 December 2014. Control is achieved when the Group is exposed, or has rights, to variable returns from its involvement with the investee and has the ability to affect those returns through its power over the investee.
Consolidation of a subsidiary begins when the Group obtains control over the subsidiary and ceases when the Group loses control of the subsidiary.
Unrealised gains from transactions with affiliated companies are eliminated with the Group’s share of the company/enterprise. Unrealised losses are likewise eliminated, but only to the degree that there is no indication of loss of value on the asset being sold internally.
C) CURRENCY TRANSACTIONS
Functional currency and reporting currency
Accounting transactions undertaken by respective Group companies use the currency ordinarily used by the financial environment in which they operate (functional currency). The Group accounts are presented in USD.
The accounts for the units in the Group which have a functional currency different from the Group’s reporting currency, convert their accounts into the reporting currency according to the following guidelines:
• Assets and debts are converted according to conversion rates on the balance sheet date
• Income and costs are converted according to monthly average conversion rates
Transactions in foreign currency
Transactions in foreign currency are converted to the functional currency at the rate at time of the transaction. Monetary items in foreign currency are converted into functional currency using the rate at the balance sheet date. Non-monetary items which are measured at historical cost expressed in foreign currency, are converted into functional currency using the currency rate at the time of the transaction.
Non-monetary items, which are measured at fair value expressed in foreign currency, are converted at the currency rate on the date of measurement. Currency rate changes are recognised continuously against profit and loss during the accounting period. Currency rates at year end was USD 7.4332 (2013: USD 6.0837) and SGD 5.6218 (2013: SGD 4.8089).
D) ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE
Trade receivables are recognised at face value less any impairment. Provision for impairment is made when there is objective evidence of impairment that affects the estimated future cash-flow.
E) TANGIBLE FIXED ASSETS
Tangible fixed assets are measured at acquisition cost, net of accumulated depreciation and impairments losses. When assets are sold or divested, the carrying amount is deducted and any gains or losses are recognised in the profit and loss account. Acquisition cost for tangible fixed assets is the purchase price, including taxes and charges and expenses directly related to preparing the asset for use. Expenses incurred after the asset has been put to use, are recognised in the profit and loss account, whereas other expenses which are expected to create future financial gains are capitalised. An estimated docking element is recognised as a separate component of the ship for depreciation purposes on the first occasion a ship is booked in the accounts. The amount corresponds to the estimated docking costs for the period. The docking component is depreciated on a straight-line basis the over the period to the next planned drydocking. Residual value has been taken into account, and this is estimated based on steel value of the ship at the balance sheet date less estimated cost to demolish the ship. Book value is compared to market value and value in use to assess the need for any further impairment compared to the ordinary depreciation plan. The depreciation period and method are assessed annually and are based on the management’s estimates of the ships’ future useful life. The same applies to residual value.
In accordance with IFRS, the ships have been separated into components for depreciation purposes. The ships are depreciated as one unit, as the value of any part of the ship with a useful lifetime other than 25 years is considered to be insignificant.
Newbuilding contracts are recognised as a fixed asset based on instalments paid to the yard. Building supervision costs and project costs related to the newbuilding contracts are capitalised.
See section L) regarding treatment of borrowing costs.
Group as a lessee
A lease is classified at the inception date as a finance lease or an operating lease. A lease that transfers substantially all the risks and rewards incidental to ownership to the Group is classified as a finance lease.
Operating lease payments are recognised as an operating expense in the statement of profit or loss on a straight-line basis over the lease term.
Group as a lessor
Leases in which the Group does not transfer substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership of an asset are classified as operating leases. Initial direct costs incurred in negotiating and arranging an operating lease are added to the carrying amount of the leased asset and recognised over the lease term on the same basis as rental income. Contingent rents are recognised as revenue in the period in which they are earned.
G) FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS
Financial instruments under the scope of IAS 39 are classified in the following categories:
• financial assets at market value through profit or loss (held for trading purposes)
• available for sale
• loans and receivables
• held to maturity investments
• other obligations
Financial assets with fixed or determinable cash flow which are not listed in an active market are classified as loans and receivables. Investments held to maturity, loans and receivables and other liabilities are measured at amortised cost.
A provision is recognised when the company has a liability (legal or constructive) as a result of a previous event and where it is probable (more probable than not) that there will be a financial settlement as a result of this liability and that the size of the sum can be reliably determined. If the effect is material, the provision is estimated by discounting the expected future cash flow with a discount rate before tax which reflects the market’s evaluation of the time value of money and, if relevant, risks specifically connected to the liability.
A provision is recognised for any unavoidable net loss arising from the contract, the unavoidable cost under a contract reflect the least net cost of exiting from the contract, i.e. the lower of the cost of fulfilling the contract; and any compensation of penalties arising from failure to fulfill the contract.
(i) Debt and equity
Financial instruments are classified as debt or equity according to the underlying substance of the contractual agreement. Interest, dividend, gains and losses related to a financial instrument classified as debt, is presented as income or expense.
(ii) Treasury shares
Own equity instruments that are reacquired (treasury shares) are recognised at cost and deducted from equity. No gain or loss is recognised in profit or loss on the purchase, sale, issue or cancellation of the Group’s own equity instruments. Any difference between the carrying amount and the consideration, if reissued, is recognised in share premium. Share options exercised during the reporting period are satisfied with treasury shares.
(iii) Costs related to equity transactions
Transaction costs directly related to equity transactions are charged directly against the equity after tax deductions.
J) REVENUE RECOGNITION
Revenue is recognised when it is likely that the economic benefits which will flow to the Group and the revenue can be reliably measured, regardless of when the payment is being made. Revenues from time charter accounted for as operational leases are recognized on a straight line basis over the rental periods of such charters, as service is performed.
K) EMPLOYEE BENEFITS
Defined contribution pension scheme
All employees are member of the company’s defined contribution scheme. The premium is charged as incurred by operations. Social security tax expense is recognized based on the pension plan payments.
Defined benefit pension scheme
Actuarial gains and losses arising from changes in actuarial assumptions are recognised as other comprehensive income in the period in which they arise. The cost of providing benefits under the defined benefit plan is determined using the projected unit credit method.
The company has unfunded pension liabilities. These relate to early retirement and pension to persons, that have not been included in the service pension scheme. Pension obligations are estimated by an independent actuary.
L) BORROWING COSTS
Borrowing costs directly attributable to the acquisition or construction of an asset that necessarily takes a substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use are capitalised as part of the cost of the asset. All other borrowing costs are expensed in the period in which they occur. Borrowing costs consist of interest and other costs that an entity incurs in connection with the borrowing of funds.
M) CONTINGENT ASSETS AND OBLIGATIONS
Contingent liabilities are not recognised in the annual accounts. Significant contingent liabilities are disclosed, with the exception of contingent liabilities in which the possibility of loss is considered distant.
Contingent assets are not recognised in the annual accounts but are disclosed if there is a certain probability that a significant benefit will be added to the Group.
N) TAXES ON INCOME
Tax expenses consist of tax payable and changes in deferred tax. Deferred tax/tax assets are calculated on all differences between accounting values and tax values of assets and liabilities, with the exception of temporary differences related to investments in subsidiaries, affiliated companies or jointly controlled enterprises when the Group controls when the temporary differences will be reversed, and that is not expected to occur in the foreseeable future.
Deferred tax assets are recognised when it is likely that the company will have sufficient profit for tax purposes in subsequent periods that will enable the company to utilise the tax asset. Similarly, the company will reduce the deferred tax asset to the extent the company no longer regards it as being likely that it can utilize the deferred tax asset.
Deferred tax liabilities and deferred tax assets are measured on the basis of prevailing tax rates for the companies in the Group where temporary differences have occurred, based on tax rates that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the end of the reporting period.
Deferred tax liabilities and deferred tax assets are entered at nominal value calculated with the tax rate in the actual tax regime and are classified as long-term liability or intangible fixed asset in the balance sheet. Tax payable and deferred tax are entered directly against equity to the extent the tax items relate to equity transactions.
In addition to companies subject to ordinary taxation in Norway, Singapore and China, the Group consists of one company within the shipping taxation scheme in Singapore. The deferred tax positions associated with the different tax regimes cannot be offset. A corresponding situation also applies to tax positions between jointly controlled operations and the rest of the Group. These cannot be offset.
O) IMPAIRMENT OF ASSETS
At the end of each quarter, every ship is assessed for any possible impairment. The same applies when events or changes occur that may entail that the asset’s carrying amount may not be recovered. In assessing the need for impairments, assets are grouped at the lowest level at which there is identifiable and predominantly independent cash inflows, which means per ship. Impairment is calculated as the difference between the asset’s carrying amount and the value considered as recoverable. The recoverable amount is the higher of the asset’s fair value less cost to sell and its value in use to the Group. Value in use is calculated by discounting anticipated future cash flows from the asset. When it is assumed that the asset’s value is lower than its carrying amount, an impairment loss is recognised.
Impairment loss recognised in earlier periods is reversed only in case of changes to the estimates used to determine the recoverable amount. However, the reversal amount may only be so high that book value after reversal at most corresponds to the value at which the asset would have been registered if it had not been impaired earlier. Such reversals are recorded in the profit and loss.
Financial assets classified as being available for sale are written down when there are objective indications that the asset has declined in value. An accumulated loss (the difference between acquisition cost and current market value, with deduction of impairments previously included in the result and any amortisation amounts) is included in the profit and loss account. If the market value of a debt instrument classified as available for sale increases in a subsequent period, and the increase can objectively be linked to an event that took place after the impairment was included in the profit and loss, the impairment loss will be reversed over the profit and loss account.
Impairment loss for an investment in an equity instrument classified as held for sale, will not be reversed over the profit and loss account.
P) EVENTS AFTER THE BALANCE SHEET DATE
New information after the balance sheet date regarding the company’s financial position as of the balance sheet date is taken into consideration in the annual accounts. Events after the balance sheet date that do not affect the company’s financial position as of the balance sheet date, but which will have an impact on the company’s financial position in the future are disclosed if significant.
Q) SHARE-BASED PAYMENTS
Employees and management in Belships ASA received options to purchase company shares. Market value of the awarded options is measured at time of the award and charged to expense over the vesting period as a payroll cost with corresponding increase in other paid-in equity. The market value of the options granted is estimated using the Black and Scholes option pricing model.
R) CASH AND CASH EQUIVALENTS
Cash and cash equivalents include cash in hand, bank deposits and other short-term and in particular liquid investments to be redeemed within 3 months. Cash and cash equivalents are recognised at nominal values in the balance sheet. Restricted deposits have been included.
S) RESTRICTED DEPOSITS
Restricted cash include all deposits in separate accounts, which will be used to cover accrued taxes withheld for employees and deposits provided as security for certain guarantees.
T) REPORTING BY SEGMENTS
Operating segments are components of a business that are evaluated regularly by the chief operating decision maker for the purpose of assessing performance and allocating resources. The Groups chief operating decision maker is the CEO. The operating segments consist in dry cargo, product tank and technical operations, which is how the information is presented to the Management and the Board. Transactions between the business units are based on market conditions. Segment turnover, segment costs and segment results include transactions between segments. The engagement in the product tank segment was ended during 2014.
U) RELATED PARTY TRANSACTIONS
Transactions with related parties are carried out at market terms. See note 10 for further information.
V) CASH FLOW STATEMENT
The cash flow statement has been prepared using the indirect method. Liquid assets include cash, bank deposits (restricted and unrestricted) and other short-term investments which can be converted to cash within 3 months. For restricted deposits, see note 15.
W) CLASSIFICATION BALANCE SHEET
|The Group presents assets and liabilities in statement of financial position based on current/non-current classification.|
|An asset is considered current when it is:|
|•||expected to be realised or intended to sold or consumed in normal operating cycle|
|•||held primarily for the purpose of trading|
|•||expected to be realised within twelve months after the reporting period|
|•||cash or cash equivalent unless restricted from being exchanged or used to settle a liability for at least twelve months after the reporting period|
|All other assets are classified as non-current.|
|A liability is considered current when it is:|
|•||expected to be settled in normal operating cycle|
|•||held primarily for the purpose of trading|
|•||due to be settled within twelve months after the reporting period|
|•||there is no unconditional right to defer the settlement of the liability for at least twelve months after the reporting period|
|The Group classifies all other liabilities as non-current. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are classified as non-current assets and liabilities.|
X) NEW AND CHANGED STANDARDS EFFECTIVE IN 2014
In 2014, the Group has adopted the following new standards and changes:
IFRS 10 Consolidated Financial Statements
This standard replaces the portion of IAS 27 – Consolidated and Separate Financial Statements that addresses the accounting for consolidated financial statements. IFRS 10 establishes a single control model that applies to all entities including special purpose entities. The changes introduced by IFRS 10 will require management to exercise significant judgment to determine which entities are controlled, and therefore, are required to be consolidated by a parent, compared with the requirements that were in IAS 27.
IFRS 11 Joint Arrangements
This standard replaces IAS 31 – Interest in Joint Ventures and SIC-13 – Jointly –controlled Entities – Non-monetary Contributions by Venturers. It removes the option to account for jointly controlled entities (JCEs) using proportionate consolidation. Instead, JCEs that meet the definition of a joint venture must be accounted for using the equity method. The application of this standard will not have an impact on the financial position of the Group as the Group already uses the equity method.
IFRS 12 Disclosures of interest in other entities
This standard includes the disclosure requirements for all forms of interests in other entities, including joint arrangements, associates, special purpose vehicles and other off balance sheet vehicles.
Implementation of the changes listed above had no material effect on the consolidated accounts in 2014.
Y) IFRSS AND IFRICS ISSUED BUT NOT YET EFFECTIVE
The financial statements have been prepared based on standards effective for the year ending 31 December 2014. IASB has
issued the following relevante standards/amendments that are not yet effective and not yet approved by the EU:
IFRS 9 Financial Instruments
IFRS 9 will eventually replace IAS 39 Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement. In order to expedite the replacement of IAS 39, the IASB divided the project into phases: classification and measurement, hedge accounting and impairment. New principles for impairment were published in July 2014 and the standard is now completed. The parts of IAS 39 that have not been amended as part of this project have been transferred into IFRS 9. If not early adopted, the standard becomes effective 1 January 2018. The group has made a preliminary assessment of the effect of the standard, and not identified any material impact on the group financial position of performance.
IFRS 15 Revenue from Contracts with Customers
The IASB and the FASB have issued their joint revenue recognition standard, IFRS 15. The standard replaces existing IFRS revenue requirements. The core principle of IFRS 15 is that revenue is recognised to depict the transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. The standard applies to all revenue contracts and provides a model for the recognition and measurement of sales of some non-financial assets (e.g., disposals of property, plant and equipment). The Group is currently assessing the impact of IFRS 15 and plans to adopt the new standard on the required effective date.